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Wednesday, May 11

  1. page Louis XIV's Use of Fashion to Control and Express Power edited ... 61 Mansel p.15 62 Anapol BIBLIOGRAPHY Anapol, Erin, Vania Osterland, and Kaitlyn Zydel. &q…
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    61 Mansel p.15
    62 Anapol
    BIBLIOGRAPHY
    Anapol, Erin, Vania Osterland, and Kaitlyn Zydel. "Fashion, Authority and Portrait Engraving as a Courtly Art." Artlab @ The Lowe 1 (8 May 2009): 4-5. Web. 16 Dec. 2010. <http://www6.miami.edu/lowe/images/Brochure/BROCHURE%20FOR%20ONLINE.pdf>.
    Annas, Alicia M., Anne Ratzki-Kraatz, and Edward Maeder, comps. An Elegant Art. Ed. Edward Maeder. Los Angeles: Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 1983. Print.
    Bell, Howell. “Daily Life in the Court of Louis XIV.” N.p.: Charles E. Merrill Publish Co., 1985. Print.
    Bernier, Oliver. Louis XIV: A Royal Life. New York: Doubleday, 1987. Print.
    DeJean, Joan. The Essence of Style. New York: Free Press, 2005. Print.
    Delpierre, Madeleine. Dress in France in the Eighteenth Century. Trans. Caroline Beamish. 1996. London: Yale University Press, 1997. Print.
    Hart, Avril, and Susan North. Historical Fashion in Detail: The 17th and 18th Century. 1998. London: V&A Publications, 2007. Print.
    Kipar, Nicole. Kipar. N.p., 2010. Web. 17 Dec. 2010. <http://www.kipar.org/index.html>. "Female Baroque Clothing." <http://www.kipar.org/baroque-costumes/costumes_female.html>.
    Kipar, Nicole. Kipar. N.p., 2010. Web. 17 Dec. 2010. <http://www.kipar.org/index.html>. "Male Accessories." <http://www.kipar.org/baroque-costumes/costumes_male_accessories.html>.
    "Louis XIV and the Court at Versailles." Collections Online. Los Angeles County Museum of Art, n.d. Web. 23 Oct. 2010. <http://collectionsonline.lacma.org/mwebcgi/mweb.exe?request=epage;id=500842;type=803>.
    Mansel, Philip. Dressed to Rule: Royal and Court Costume from Louis XIV to Elizabeth II. New Haven and London: Yale University Presss, 2005. Print.
    Zipes, Jack. "Setting Standards for Civilization through Fairy Tales: Charles Perrault and his Associates." Fairy Tales and the Art of Subversion. 1983. New York: Routledge, 1991. 13-44. Print.

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  2. page Thomas Hobbes edited ... a poor family.1 family.[1] He was Because of the logic he applied to this situation he be…
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    a poor family.1family.[1] He was
    Because of the logic he applied to this situation he became very influential. But there was much hostility against him as well. Later scholars believed him to be godless, immoral, cynical, and unfeeling.
    Works Referenced
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  3. page Sweden edited {Charles_XII_of_Sweden.jpg} Charles XII, www.wikipedia.orgNote: Charles is a Latinized version of …
    {Charles_XII_of_Sweden.jpg} Charles XII, www.wikipedia.orgNote: Charles is a Latinized version of the Swedish Carl.
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    an absolutist government.1government.[1] The nobles,
    However his successor, Charles XII (1697-1718), reawakened the countries tradition of military conquest. He won land from Peter the Great, but then tried to invade Russia and was defeated at the battle of Poltava in 1709. Sweden slowly began to lose power and after this defeat the empire was dismembered. His neighbors and enemies had begun to overrun his lands by the time he died in 1718. From treaties signed in 1719 and 1721 it was reduced to the land it had been a century earlier.
    During Charles XII’s reign the nobles retook power because of his absences during the Great Northern War and the nobles managed to rule effectively. They made his successor, Queen Ulrika, agree to a constitution which gave the Riksdag control. This new system was similar to many in Europe. The nobility were like English gentry, a court arose, and Stockholm became even more elegant and cultured, like other governmental centers in Europe.
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  4. page Spain edited ... Charles II (1665-1700).1 (1665-1700).[1] But Charles The Spanish nobility started taking …
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    Charles II (1665-1700).1(1665-1700).[1] But Charles
    The Spanish nobility started taking large pieces of the king’s power. Catalonia was virtually ruled by nobles and many of Spain’s other colonies were following the same course. Though the monarchy attempted to form a government completely control by the king, the nobles gained too much control and the country fell into economic and cultural stagnation, the only sense of pride left in their Navy.
    Works Referenced
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  5. page Poland edited ... absolutism was Poland.1 Poland.[1] The country The country had a good king in John III, w…
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    absolutism was Poland.1Poland.[1] The country
    The country had a good king in John III, who was well known because of his helping Vienna from the Turks in 1683, and he had a good and enthusiastic army which he used against Poland’s foes: Germany, Sweden, Russia, and the Turks. But once battles ended he had little power. The kings of Poland were elected by nobles and thus had to agree not to interfere with the noble’s independence. The nobles were in turn gaining massive amounts of wealth from their serfs and fertile land while the crown had no revenue or bureaucracy. This led Poland to continue to be a feudal kingdom with un-unified power.
    Works Referenced
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  6. page Nautical Terms edited ... ASTERN - In back of the boat, opposite of ahead. ATHWARTSHIPS - At right angles to the center…
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    ASTERN - In back of the boat, opposite of ahead.
    ATHWARTSHIPS - At right angles to the centerline of the boat; rowboat seats are generally athwart ships.
    AVAST - Stop.1Stop.[1]
    AWEIGH - The position of anchor as it is raised clear of the bottom.
    B
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    make it stable.2stable.[2]
    BATTEN DOWN - Secure hatches and loose objects both within the hull and on deck.
    BEAM - The greatest width of the boat.
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    BILGE - The interior of the hull below the floor boards.
    BITTER END - The last part of a rope or chain.The inboard end of the anchor rode.
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    masts and sails.3sails.[3]
    BOAT - A fairly indefinite term. A waterborne vehicle smaller than a ship. One definition is a small craft carried aboard a ship.
    BOAT HOOK - A short shaft with a fitting at one end shaped to facilitate use in putting a line over a piling, recovering an object dropped overboard, or in pushing or fending off.
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    of the crew.4crew.[4]
    BOOT TOP - A painted line that indicates the designed waterline.
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    (see boatswain). 5[5]
    BOW - The forward part of a boat.
    BOW LINE - A docking line leading from the bow.
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    CABIN - A compartment for passengers or crew.
    CAPSIZE - To turn over.
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    up the anchor.6anchor.[6]
    CAREEN -
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    side for repairs.7repairs.[7]
    CAST OFF - To let go.
    CATAMARAN - A twin-hulled boat, with hulls side by side.
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    COIL - To lay a line down in circular turns.
    COURSE - The direction in which a boat is steered.
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    on the ship.8ship.[8]
    CUDDY - A small shelter cabin in a boat.
    CURRENT - The horizontal movement of water.
    D
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    the hangman’s rope.9rope.[9]
    DEAD AHEAD - Directly ahead.
    DEAD ASTERN - Directly aft.
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    FENDER - A cushion, placed between boats, or between a boat and a pier, to prevent damage.
    FIGURE EIGHT KNOT - A knot in the form of a figure eight, placed in the end of a line to prevent the line from passing through a grommet or a block.
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    in the Caribbean.10Caribbean.[10]
    FLARE - The outward curve of a vessel's sides near the bow. A distress signal.
    FLOOD - A incoming current.
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    GANGWAY - The area of a ship's side where people board and disembark.
    GEAR - A general term for ropes, blocks, tackle and other equipment.
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    display executed criminals.11criminals.[11]
    GIVE-WAY VESSEL - A term used to describe the vessel which must yield in meeting, crossing, or overtaking situations.
    GRAB RAILS - Hand-hold fittings mounted on cabin tops and sides for personal safety when moving around the boat.
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    HEADWAY - The forward motion of a boat. Opposite of sternway.
    HELM - The wheel or tiller controlling the rudder. HELMSPERSON - The person who steers the boat.
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    a pirate’s neck.12neck.[12]
    HITCH - A knot used to secure a rope to another object or to another rope, or to form a loop or a noose in a rope.
    HOLD - A compartment below deck in a large vessel, used solely for carrying cargo.
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    INTRACOASTAL WATERWAY - ICW: bays, rivers, and canals along the coasts (such as the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts), connected so that vessels may travel without going into the sea.
    J
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    created by pirates.13pirates.[13]
    JACOBS LADDER - A rope ladder, lowered from the deck, as when pilots or passengers come aboard.
    JETTY - A structure, usually masonry, projecting out from the shore; a jetty may protect a harbor entrance.
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    LINE - Rope and cordage used aboard a vessel.
    LOG - A record of courses or operation. Also, a device to measure speed.
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    used in port.14port.[14]
    LONGITUDE - The distance in degrees east or west of the meridian at Greenwich, England.
    LUBBER'S LINE - A mark or permanent line on a compass indicating the direction forward parallel to the keel when properly installed.
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    QUARTERING SEA - Sea coming on a boat's quarter.
    R
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    the Barbary corsairs.15corsairs.[15]
    RODE - The anchor line and/or chain.
    ROPE - In general, cordage as it is purchased at the store. When it comes aboard a vessel and is put to use it becomes line.
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    SCREW - A boat's propeller.
    SCUPPERS - Drain holes on deck, in the toe rail, or in bulwarks or (with drain pipes) in the deck itself.
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    sink a ship.16ship.[16]
    SEA COCK - A through hull valve, a shut off on a plumbing or drain pipe between the vessel's interior and the sea.
    SEAMANSHIP - All the arts and skills of boat handling, ranging from maintenence and repairs to piloting, sail handling, marlinespike work, and rigging.
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    SOLE - Cabin or saloon floor. Timber extensions on the bottom of the rudder. Also the molded fiberglass deck of a cockpit.
    SOUNDING - A measurement of the depth of water.
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    to support sails.17sails.[17]
    SPLICE -
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    join two ropes.18ropes.[18]
    SPRING LINE - A pivot line used in docking, undocking, or to prevent the boat from moving forward or astern while made fast to a dock.
    SQUALL - A sudden, violent wind often accompanied by rain.
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    YACHT - A pleasure vessel, a pleasure boat; in American usage the idea of size and luxury is conveyed, either sail or power.
    YAW - To swing or steer off course, as when running with a quartering sea.
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    illness was aboard.19aboard.[19]
    Footnotes
    1 Lincoln 26
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  7. page John Locke edited ... of Thomas Hobbes.1 Hobbes.[1] However, he In politics he agreed with the gentry. His book…
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    of Thomas Hobbes.1Hobbes.[1] However, he
    In politics he agreed with the gentry. His book The Second Treaties of Civil Government (1690) was similar to Hobbes’s. He agreed with the idea of a State needing a contract between ruler and people, but he came to a different conclusion. There must be the tree rights of life, liberty, and property and though there must be a sovereign they cannot be over these rights. And the sovereign must be subject to a group of representatives, such as Parliament.
    Locke’s belief in property strung right along with the gentry, who owned most of the land in England. Freedom was vague, but related back to the Bill of Rights and Locke allowed that subjects could overthrow a government if they were not doing their job correctly. Locke’s main goal was to protect an individual from the government.
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  8. page Holy Roman Empire edited ... an absolutions government.1 government.[1] He was Leopold was neither as bravado or ever …
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    an absolutions government.1government.[1] He was
    Leopold was neither as bravado or ever as powerful as Louis. He was {Prince_Eugene.jpg} Prince Eugene, www.wikipedia.orgrefined and religious and did create the renowned music culture that persisted throughout Vienna’s history. The Thirty Year’s War had established the German princes as in control of the state and not the Holy Roman Emperor, however in his other domains, with the cooperation of the nobility in the Privy Council which ran the government; the Holy Roman Emperor maintained power. However, because he consulted all his ministers’ decisions were made incredibly slowly.
    Leopold was willing to use foreigners in officials positions if he believed they would do a better job than a man in his own realm. Prince Eugène, the duke of Lorraine and the most brilliant soldier of his age, was one such man. Though he was a French subject, he had been unable to suede Louis XIV to give him a military commission, he went to the Holy Roman Emperor. He fought with Austria against the Turks as they continued to battle, and win territory, in the area. He became a field marshal by thirty and for forty more years he fought fairly successfully.
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  9. page Hohenzollens edited ... Hohenzollerns in Brandenburg-Prussia.1 Brandenburg-Prussia.[1] A close Frederick needed a…
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    Hohenzollerns in Brandenburg-Prussia.1Brandenburg-Prussia.[1] A close
    Frederick needed an army. If he did he could be of some help to larger powers, who would in turn help him with his enemies abroad while he dealt with enemies at home. By 1648 he had 8,000 troops and was backed by the Dutch and French, who hoped he would restrain Sweden as the Treaty of Westphalia, the treaty ending the Thirty Year’s War, was drawn up. Though Frederick had barely participated in the war, he gained a lot from the treaty. And during the wars around the Baltic he quickly switched sides, which gained him 14,000 men.
    In 1653 the Diet of Brandenburg met for one last time, giving Frederick the ability to raise taxes without their consent. The War Chest, which controlled the army finances, took over the treasury department and collected taxes. War commissars, who had originally had recruited for the military and billeting, now put policies into practice in localities.
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  10. page England edited ... After such an extended time of inflation, laborers could again live decently. There was a grea…
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    After such an extended time of inflation, laborers could again live decently. There was a greater demand for art, more men could participate in the government, and there was a greater ability to succeed in the growing economy—in trade, luxury goods, and the bureaucracy. England had some of the best roads in Europe and about 60,000 men were professionals in 1730. Throughout all of this the gentry made enormous gains and most benefits of the laymen was because of laws the gentry passed to enrich itself.
    POLCE FORCE
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    “hue and cry”1cry”[1] by officers
    Over the 1700s this sense of citizen responsibility disappeared as more men were hired and paid to do the job. Thief-takers became a prominent way to catch criminals. Thief-takers were hired, sometimes by victims and especially later by justices of the peace, to track down criminals. Rewards also began to appear as well as pardons to accomplices that turned in others in the group. Information about rewards and criminals was widely circulated by newspapers. This also led to less citizen involvement, leaving the apprehension of criminals to those more motivated by reward.
    Thief-takers became popular in the early 1600s, started by the government because of the high crime rate. The thief-takers began because of the offering of rewards, which were supplemented in the 1700s by victims after the government’s payment. Thief-takers most often negotiated between criminals and victims about returning goods and turned in criminals. However, some of the more corrupt blackmailed criminals or convinced gullible people to commit crimes before turning them in.
    Constables—who were expected to apprehend criminals and turn them over to the justice of the peace—night watchmen—who patrolled from 9 pm to sunrise and were obligated to examine anyone suspicious—and the City Marshall and beadles—who patrolled during the day—were expected to keep the peace and catch minor criminals. They weren’t expected to search out criminals or prosecute them.
    Originally the watchmen were expected to from citizen’s households, rotating around the neighborhood. Eventually people started hiring deputies to take their place until it came to the point where men could make a living out of it. In 1751 the Watch Acts were passed, which levied a tax on citizens to pay for full time watchmen.
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    and the underworld.2underworld.[2]
    Works Referenced
    Chambers, Mortimer; Grew, Raymond; Herlihy, David; Rabb, Theodore K.; Woloch, Isser. The Western Experience: Sixth Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1991
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